What little is known about Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 535 – 475 B.C.E.) comes down to us in mysterious, powerful fragments, mostly reported by Diogenes Laertius, a third-century biographer of Greek philosophers. Although scholars still dispute his claim, Laertius tells us that Heraclitus had actually written a full-length treatise entitled On Nature, and not just the terse sayings we know as the fragments. Instead of a complete, systematic work, we are left with those shorter sayings of Heraclitus that often puzzle and stun.

by Heraclitus of Ephesus: